domingo, 12 de abril de 2015

La Twitosfera de los economistas principales

Top 100 de los usuarios más influyentes de la Twitosfera de la Economía: Un enfoque algorítmico

Captain Economics

[Título editado después de los comentarios sobre el uso de la palabra "economistas". Nos cambiamos a "Economía Twitosphere", que está más cerca de lo que el algoritmo realmente identificar] ¿Cómo es posible medir la influencia en línea en Twitter? Y la manera de identificar las 100 mejores cuentas de Twitter más influyentes relacionados con la economía? Para abordar esta cuestión, y siguiendo una metodología inspirada en el documento de trabajo "Measuring User Influence in Twitter: The Million Follower Fallacy", desarrollamos un programa bastante simple en Python para extraer datos sobre relación seguidores en Twitter, y usamos una estrecha algoritmo a la "Google PageRank" para clasificar y rango cuenta por influencia. Agrupamos los datos utilizando el algoritmo Fuerza Atlas y usamos Gephi para dibujar el gráfico wonderfuuuuuul verá al final de este artículo. Pero ¿cómo funciona con mayor precisión? Vamos a tratar de explicar este léxico "nongeek" paso a paso, usando (si lo que deseas es ver el gráfico y / o la lista final, usted puede ir directamente a la final de este artículo).



Paso 1 - Identificar una lista de cinco economistas influyentes en Twitter: Primero tenemos que definir manualmente (subjetivamente) una lista cerrada de 5 economistas influyentes. Tratamos de ser lo más objetivo posible, y finalmente elegimos los cinco siguientes cuentas (3 ganadores del Premio Nobel, y dos economistas con respectivamente 70 K + y + 300K seguidores). Esta lista puede ser criticado, pero nos encontramos con que nuestros resultados son robustos a la lista inicial utilizado.
  • Paul Krugman (NYTimeskrugman)
  • Joseph Stiglitz (JosephEStiglitz)
  • Robert Shiller (RobertJShiller)
  • Justin Wolfers (JustinWolfers)
  • Nouriel Roubini (Roubini)

Paso 2 - Extraer a todas las cuentas, seguidas por esas cinco cuentas: Utilizamos Twitter API para extraer e introducir en una base de datos de Twitter ID de todas las cuentas, seguido por los usuarios de la lista antes definidos ... Por ejemplo, Justin Wolfers sigue 587 otra usuarios, por lo que añadir todos aquellos usuarios de nuestra base de datos. Y lo hemos hecho lo mismo por Krugman (que sigue a sólo 2 usuarios), Stiglitz (78), Shiller (23) y Roubini (381).




Paso 3 - Identificar los diecinueve "usuarios más comúnmente seguidos": Hacemos la hipótesis de que cuando los usuarios influyentes comúnmente siguen otro usuario, este usuario debe también ser influyentes. Identificamos los diecinueve "más comúnmente seguida cuenta de Twitter" y añadir esas cuentas a nuestra base de datos de usuario. ¿Por qué 19? Simplemente porque vamos a utilizar 5 iteraciones (añadiendo 5 veces las 19 cuentas más comúnmente seguidos), y 19 * 5 + 5 = 100. Por ejemplo, Branko Milanovic (BrankoMilan) es seguido por Stiglitz, Roubini y Wolfers, así que le añada a la lista. Otras cuentas de influencia identificados de esta manera durante la primera iteración incluyen Bradford DeLong (delong), Austan Goolsbee (Austan_Goolsbee), Richard Thaler (R_Thaler), Jason Furman (CEAChair), Proyecto-Sindicato (Prosyn) y la Oficina Nacional de Investigación Económica (nberpubs). El siguiente gráfico muestra los vínculos entre los 24 usuarios después de la primera iteración. Los enlaces se dirigen (mostrando cuando una cuenta sigue a otro) y el tamaño del nodo depende de enlaces entrantes.


top-influyente economista



Paso 4 - Vuelva al paso 2 y extraer información sobre las diecinueve nuevas cuentas

Paso 5 - Vuelva al paso 3 y añadir los "diecinueve usuarios más comúnmente seguido": Uso de la lista de la gráfica anterior de 24 cuentas, en lugar de la lista inicial de 5 cuentas. Y una y otra vez, hasta alcanzar 100 cuentas



Paso 6 - Abrir Gephi utilizar una clasificación "tipo PageRank", para clusterizar los datos y para crear un gráfico: Y se acabó! Así que aquí está el gráfico final, y por debajo de la lista de las 100 cuentas más influyentes identificados con nuestra metodología. El tamaño del nodo representa la influencia y la distancia entre dos nodos depende de la similitud entre las cuentas. Está lejos de ser perfecto, por supuesto (nuestro objetivo inicial era identificar "economistas", y terminamos con un buen montón de periodistas que hablan de economía y finanzas ... pero los periodistas son muy activo e influyente en Twitter así que no es una gran sorpresa ), pero en realidad estamos bastante contentos con la lista definitiva, ya que es coherente con nuestros puntos de vista (limitadas y parciales) de la "red económica Twitter". Y los ganadores son ....



Top 100


Top 100
Adam DavidsonCo-founder of NPR's Planet Money. On Money columnist, NY Times Magazine.
Adam PosenPresident, Peterson Institute for International Economics; advises central banks & governments, and fixed income investors; proclaiming on policy daily
Alan B. KruegerProfessor of Economics at Princeton University, Former Chairman of the President's Council of Economic Advisers
Amir SufiChicago Board of Trade Professor of Finance at Chicago Booth, co-director IGM at Chicago Booth, book House of Debt now available!!
Andrew Ross SorkinNew York Times Columnist & CNBC Squawk Box (@SquawkCNBC) Co-Anchor. Author, Too Big To Fail. Founder, @DealBook. Proud father. RTs ? endorsements
Annie LowreyI write about the economy for @nymag.
Atul GawandeSurgeon, Writer, Researcher, Dilettante.
Austan GoolsbeeEcon prof at U.Chicago's Booth School of Business and former Chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers. Strategic partner, @32Advisors
Barry EichengreenGeorge C. Pardee and Helen N. Pardee Professor of Economics and Political Science, University of California, Berkeley, NBER Research Associate, CEPR Res Fellow
Barry RitholtzDirector of Cognitive Dissonance
Ben CasselmanChief economics writer for @fivethirtyeight. Formerly with the Wall Street Journal. Links/RTs are not endorsements.
Ben SmithBuzzFeed Editor-in-Chief. Beats working for a living. Email or gchat me at ben@buzzfeed.com. AIM benobserver.
Ben WhitePOLITICO Chief Economic Correspondent and Morning Money columnist, CNBC contributor, dad. ex NYT, FT, WP. RTs mean I love you.
Betsey StevensonFormer Chief Economist at Labor. Current academic economist at Michigan. Always an economist at home.
Betsey StevensonMember of President Obama's Council of Economic Advisers. Tweets may be archived. More at http://t.co/QjVMIjASt0.
Binyamin AppelbaumWashington correspondent for The New York Times. bappelbaum@nytimes.com
Blake HounshellEditorial director, digital, at POLITICO, formerly at Foreign Policy. Mostly international, some politics. RT means it's interesting. bhounshell[at]politico
brad plumerSenior editor at http://t.co/NQERH88gK8. On the apocalypse beat, more or less.
Branko Milanovic1) Income inequality; 2) Politics; 3) History; 4) Soccer. Author of The Haves and the Have-nots: A brief and idiosyncratic history of global inequality.
Brookings EconAims to increase understanding of how the economy works and what can be done to help it work better.
Cardiff GarciaCold shower, always running. Opinions are mine, obviously, but why aren't they yours?
Cass SunsteinProfessor of Law, interested in behavioral economics.
Catherine RampellOpinion columnist at @washingtonpost. Previously econ reporter/moonlighting theater critic at @nytimes.
Christopher HayesHost of All In with Chris Hayes on MSNBC, Weeknights at 8pm. Editor at Large at The Nation. Cubs fan.
Chrystia FreelandLiberal MP for Toronto Centre. Author. Proud wife and mother of three. Runner when I can squeeze it in.
Dani Rodrik 
Daniel DreznerProfessor @FletcherSchool. Writer of Spoiler Alerts @washingtonpost. Author of The System Worked http://t.co/25PEMgHcK8. Shaker of hands with Mel Brooks.
Daniel GrossExecutive Editor, Strategy + Business. Author of books. Writer of columns at Slate, DailyBeast, Newsweek, Yahoo!. Purveyor of one-liners.
daveweigelRoving reporter for @bpolitics. Finishing a book about progressive rock (W.W. Norton, 2015). daveweigel@gmail.com, 302-507-6806.
David FrumSenior Editor, The Atlantic. Chairman, Policy Exchange. David.Frum(at)theAtlantic(dot)com
David LeonhardtNow: editor, The Upshot, for NYT. Then: DC bureau chief, Here's the Deal e-book, Pulitzer for commentary, math major. Still: Jim Rice, ma la, Art Blakey
David WesselDirector, Hutchins Center on Fiscal & Monetary Policy, Brookings institution. Contributing correspondent, The Wall Street Journal
Dean BakerI am an economist and co-director of the Center for Economic and Policy Research. I also run the blog Beat the Press (@beat_the_press)
Derek ThompsonSenior editor @TheAtlantic. Economics of work and play. Mondays @hereandnow. EMAIL: derek[at]theatlantic[dot]com
Donald MarronEconomist and nature lover. Director of Economic Policy Initiatives & Institute Fellow @UrbanInstitute. Writer about economics, finance, and life.
Douglas Holtz-EakinPresident of the American Action Forum (@AAF), Fmr. CBO Director, and @twizzlers fanatic.
Dylan MatthewsI know, I know, I don't like me either. Retweets are proposals of marriage.
Eduardo PorterJournalist and author. Write Economic Scene column for NYT. Author of The Price of Everything.
Erik BrynjolfssonEconomics of information and information technology, digitization, strategy, business intelligence. Co-author of The Second Machine Age #2MA
Evan SoltasBloomberg View. Vox. Princeton.
Ezra KleinEditor-in-chief, http://t.co/hH5hVMv0KR. Policy analyst at MSNBC. Eater of food. Hater of filibuster. Lover of charts.
Farhad ManjooI write about technology for the New York Times. Anyone can DM me. I prefer DM PR pitches. farhad.manjoo@nytimes.com Snapchat: fmanjoo
Felix SalmonTo test the resolution of the young with tales of the small failings of the great, and shame the eager with ironic praise.
FiveThirtyEightThe home of Nate Silver's FiveThirtyEight on Twitter. Politics, Economics, Science, Life, Sports.
Garance Franke-RutaEditor in Chief, @YahooPolitics, a @YahooNews production. Politics, media, breaking.
Greg IpChief economics commentator for The Wall Street Journal, and author of The Little Book of Economics, a citizen's economic primer.
Henry BlodgetHello! I'm the founder, editor, and CEO of Business Insider. Thanks for following me!
J. Bradford DeLongPrimate, economist, utopian, shrill: macroblog: http://t.co/uVDLXYdxZg
Jack ShaferPolitico. Formerly Reuters, Slate, SFWeekly, Washington City Paper, Inquiry. Email list: http://t.co/qS6GJKmn8c RSS: http://t.co/gIrIllsnpY
James FallowsNational correspondent, the Atlantic
James PethokoukisPeth-uh-KOO-kiss | American Enterprise Institute. CNBC Contributor. Jeopardy! champ. @TheWeek, @NRO, @Commentary, @NationalAffairs. Ex-Reuters columnist
Jared BernsteinSenior Fellow at @CenterOnBudget, former Chief Economist and Economic Adviser to Vice President Joe Biden, and author of the forthcoming book “The Reconnection
Jason FurmanChairman of President Obama's Council of Economic Advisers. Tweets may be archived. More at http://t.co/eaLyyFdh32.
Jesse EisingerSenior Reporter @ ProPublica. New York Times Dealbook columnist. Wall St & Finance. Green Bay Packers. @sarahlellison's husband.
Jim TankersleyEconomic Policy Correspondent, The Washington Post. Dad. Backpacker. Cardinal. Oregonian eternal.
John Cassidyhttp://t.co/gpdFMVCdBz
Jonathan ChaitWriter for New York magazine. jbchait@gmail.com; a no-talent illiterate hack -- Donald Trump
Jonathan CohnWriter at the Huffington Post, covering health care, social welfare, and other policy issues. Come for the journalism, stay for the Billy Joel interludes.
Joseph E. StiglitzThe official account of Joseph E. Stiglitz, Nobel laureate economist based at Columbia University.
Joseph WeisenthalDoing something new at Bloomberg.
Josh BarroCorrespondent for The Upshot at The New York Times. Host of MSNBC's Three Cents web show. Like Oprah, but judgmental and negative. josh.barro@nytimes.com
Justin FoxColumnist @BV. Eater of free snacks.
Justin WolfersSenior Fellow—Peterson Institute for International Economics | Professor @UMichEcon & @FordSchool | Contributing Columnist @NYTimes | Visiting Prof @USydneyEcon
Kelly EvansCNBC by way of WSJ.
Kevin DrumPolitical blogger and writer for Mother Jones magazine.
Lawrence H. SummersCharles W. Eliot Professor and President Emeritus at Harvard. Secretary of the Treasury for President Clinton and the Director of the NEC for President Obama.
Lizzie O'Learyaspiring hildy johnson.
Marc AndreessenWhere's the kaboom? There was supposed to be an earth-shattering kaboom!
Mark Thoma 
Martin WolfAn automated feed of FT content by Martin Wolf, chief economics commentator at the Financial Times. Account maintained by FT's social media team.
Matt O'BrienI write about economics for Wonkblog. Formerly the Atlantic & TNR.
Matt YglesiasExecutive Editor at Vox.
Matthew C. KleinFT Alphavillain. I took the background picture (of Everest).
Matthew ZeitlinFinance reporter @BuzzFeedNews matt.zeitlin@buzzfeed.com
Megan McArdleColumnist @BloombergView. Ex-Economist, Newsweek, The Atlantic. Opinions my own. Buy my new book, The Up Side of Down! http://t.co/IWQZBRQ0uO
Mike AllenChief White House correspondent, POLITICO
Mike KonczalEconomics, finance. @RooseveltInst Fellow. @thenation contributor. Always dressed and buttoned up.
Modeled BehaviorAdam Ozimek. More serious econ blog: http://t.co/g0x3TXsuVx More fun econ blog: http://t.co/ZBSpoqUM0P
Motoko RichNew York Times national preK-12 education reporter. Back in the day: economics, book publishing, real estate. Still interested in all of it. WSJ, FT alum.
Nate SilverEditor-in-Chief, FiveThirtyEight. Author, The Signal and the Noise (http://t.co/9mLliQYI8N). Sports/politics/food geek.
NBERThe National Bureau of Economic Research is dedicated to promoting a greater understanding of how the economy works.
Neil IrwinSenior economic correspondent at The New York Times's The Upshot and author of The Alchemists: Three Central Bankers and a World on Fire.
Noah SmithMulti-class Half-Elven Finance Prof/Blogger (lvl 2/12)
Noam ScheiberLabor and workplace reporter for NY Times. Ex-TNR. Author of The Escape Artists, book on Obama admin & economy. noamscheiber@gmail.com
Nouriel RoubiniProfessor at Stern School, NYU, Chairman of Roubini Global Economics (http://t.co/wbkoj5TAgj), blog at http://t.co/Z42QiBDfB2 Author of Crisis Economics
NPR's Planet MoneyYour global economy, explained. Email us planetmoney@npr.org. Subscribe to our twice weekly podcast in iTunes.
NYT OpinionEditorials, columns, Op-Ed essays, letters, blog posts, more from @nytimes. opinion@nytimes.com.
Paul KrugmanNobel laureate. Op-Ed columnist, @nytopinion. Author, “The Return of Depression Economics,” “The Great Unraveling,” “The Age of Diminished Expectations” + more.
Paul RomerProfessor, NYU Stern; Director http://t.co/rQelsMGpc9
Pedro da CostaReporter covering Federal Reserve and economics at The Wall Street Journal. Previously at Reuters. Reasonably confident interest rates will one day rise again.
Peter CoyBloomberg Businessweek Economics Editor. Also reachable at pcoy3@bloomberg.net.
Peter OrszagPeter Orszag is an economist, runner, vice chair at Citi and columnist at @BloombergView
Project SyndicateThe World's Opinion Page || en français: @ProSyn_Fr || en español: @ProSyn_Esp || RT = FYI
Real Time EconomicsEconomic insight and analysis from The Wall Street Journal. Tweets by @BeckyBowers and @SarahPortlock.
Reihan Salam@NRO, @NR_Institute, @CNN, @Slate, @NationalAffairs, @VICE
Richard FloridaDirector, @MartinProsperiT University of Toronto, Global Research Professor NYU, Co-founder & Editor at Large @CityLab
Richard H ThalerProfessor of Behavioral Science and Economics, Booth School of Business, University of Chicago, co-author of Nudge (2008) and Misbehaving (2015).
Robert CostaNational political reporter, @washingtonpost
Robert J ShillerEconomist at Yale University. Irrationally Exuberant.
Robert ReichHusband, father, grandfather, Berkeley professor, former US Secretary of Labor. Movie INEQUALITY FOR ALL now available on Netflix, iTunes, DVD.
Robin HardingTokyo bureau chief for the Financial Times. Recovering Fed-watcher. Blathering here about Japan and the global economy.
Ross DouthatNew York Times columnist, National Review film critic, author of Bad Religion: How We Became a Nation of Heretics (Free Press, 2012).
Ryan AventNews editor for The Economist
Ryan Lizzawrite for @newyorker, talk on @cnn, teach at @georgetown
Sarah KliffI write for Vox. Formerly: Washington Post, Politico, Newsweek and, back in the day, Student Life. Health-care nerd. sarah@vox.com
Simon JohnsonSimon Johnson. Co-author of White House Burning (http://t.co/aET2U5hlDP) and 13 Bankers (http://t.co/jv6uH8Tzjp).
Strobe TalbottPresident, Brookings Institution
Sudeep ReddyI am an economics editor at The Wall Street Journal.
Suzy KhimmSoon: Writing features at The New Republic. Formerly: MSNBC, The Washington Post. Always: Not @seungminkim.
The EconomistNews and analysis with a global perspective. Follow for article updates, events and news from The Economist. To subscribe go to: http://t.co/VJbacSdRCj
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Tim HarfordAuthor of Adapt; Undercover Economist at the FT; presenter of More or Less, Radio 4. (Email v/ website is best for important messages.) Views my own, of course.
tom keenebloomberg surveillance
Tony FrattoHamilton Place Strategies; CNBC Contributor; Board Member - @WFPUSA & @CGDev; K Street Capital; GWU Dist Fellow; frmr US Treasury & WH official.
tylercowenProfessor of Economics, George Mason University, blogger at http://t.co/1Pkhb9zvBt.
VoxUnderstand the news.
Will WilkinsonWriterer. Teaches at University of Tennessee, Chattanooga. Assistant non-fiction editor for Gulf Coast. Blogger for The Economist.
William EasterlyNYU Econ Prof; author of The Tyranny of Experts: Economists, Dictators, and the Forgotten Rights of the Poor
Zachary GoldfarbPolicy editor at The Washington Post. @Wonkblog, economics and policy. Previously: White House & economics correspondent.

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